The Birth Of Gawai Dayak & Its Celebration
Gawai Dayak, a festive celebrated in Sarawak on 1st June every year is
both a religious and social occasion. Dayak would visit their friends and relatives on
this day. Such visit is more known as "ngabang" in Iban language. The far
would receive greeting cards.
How it all started can be traced back to a 1957 radio forum organized by Mr
Ian Kingsley, a radio programme organiser. This generated a lot of interest among the
Dayak community. Up till 1962, British colonial government still refused to give
recognition to the Dayak Day.
To the Dayak, Gawai Dayak would be a recognition of the Dayak race,
their source of national pride and a way to reciprocate social hospitality extended by the
other races during their festivals.
After numerous requests, it fell on the sympathetic ears of the First
Sarawak Chief Minister, Datuk Stephen Kalong Ningkan and his cabinet comprising among
others, the present State Chief Minister, Datuk Patinggi Tan Sri Haji Abdul Taib Mahmud.
The then Governor, Tun Abang Haji Openg, who when he was a member of the council Negeri,
had always supported the move in the Council, gave his assent.
Gawai Dayak was formally gazetted on 25th September 1964 as a public
holiday in place of Sarawak Day. It was first celebrated on 1st June 1965 and
became a symbol of unity, aspiration and hope for the Dayak community.Today, it is an
integral part of Dayak social life. It is a thanksgiving day marking good harvest and a
time to plan for the new farming season or activities ahead.
Present Day of Gawai Dayak
The word Gawai means a ritual or festival whereas Dayak is a
collective name for the natives races in Sarawak; the Iban, Bidayuh, Kayan, Kenyah,
Kelabit, Murut and a few more. Thus Gawai Dayak literally means the Dayak Festival.
The mode of celebrations varies from place to place. Preparation starts
very early. Tuak (rice wine) are brewed and traditional delicacies like penganan
(cakes from rice flour, sugar and coconut milk) prepared. As the big day approaches,
everyone will be busy with the general cleaning and preparing the food or cakes. On Gawai
eve, glutinous rice are roasted in bamboo (ngelulun pulut). In the longhouse, new
mats will be laid out on the ruai (an open gallery which runs through the entire
length of the longhouse). The walls of most bilik (rooms) and the ruai are
decorated with pua kumbu (traditional blanket).
The celebration starts on the evening of 31st May. In most Iban's
longhouse, it starts with a ceremony called Muai Antu Rua (to cast away the spirit
of greediness), signifying the non interference of the spirit of bad luck in the
celebration. Two children or men each dragging a chapan or winnowing basket will
pass each family room. Every family will throw some unwanted article into the basket. The
unwanted articles will be tossed to the ground from the end of the longhouse for the
spirit of bad luck.
Around 6 pm, miring (offering ceremony) will take place. Before the
ceremony, gendang rayah (ritual music) is performed. The feast chief thanks the
gods for the good harvest, ask for guidance, blessings and long life as he sacrifices a
cockerel. Dinner will then be served at the ruai. While waiting for midnight, the
folks gather and mingle at the ruai and berandau (talk/converse). Meanwhile,
drinks, traditional cakes and delicacies are served.
At midnight, the gong is sounded. The tuai rumah will lead everyone to
drink the Ai Pengayu (normally tuak for long life) and at the same time wishing
each other "gayu-guru, gerai-nyamai" (long life, health and prosperity).
A procession up and down the ruai called Ngalu Petara (Welcoming the
Spirits) will follow. The celebration by now will get more merrier. Some will dance to the
traditional music played. Others will sing the pantun (poems). In the town, the
Dayak will gather at the community centres or restaurants for a enliven the evening.
Other activities that may follow the next day include cock-fighting,
demonstration of blowpipe skills and ngajat competitions. On this day, 1st June, the homes
of the Dayaks will be opened to visitors. In the longhouses, there is a practises called masu
pengabang where guests will be served with tuak by the host before they can enter the
longhouse. Dayaks will attend a church mass to thanks God for the good harvest. Gawai
Dayak celebration may last for several days. Visitors are most welcome to the homes of the
Dayaks during the festival.
Source: Voices From a Longhouse
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